It has been suggested that this article be with. () Proposed since May 2016. () Best coding practices are a set of informal rules that the community has learned over time which can help improve the quality of software.
Many computer programs remain in use for far longer than the original authors ever envisaged (sometimes 40 years or more), so any rules need to facilitate both initial development and subsequent maintenance and enhancement by people other than the original authors. In, Tom Cargill is credited with this explanation as to why programming projects often run late: 'The first 90% of the code accounts for the first 90% of the development time. Naruto Generations Keygen Download Cs6. The remaining 10% of the code accounts for the other 90% of the development time.' Any guidance which can redress this lack of foresight is worth considering. The size of a project or program has a significant effect on error rates, programmer productivity, and the amount of management needed. Main article: As listed below, there are many attributes associated with good software. Some of these can be mutually contradictory (e.g.
Very fast versus full error checking), and different customers and participants may have different priorities. Weinberg provides an example of how different goals can have a dramatic effect on both effort required and efficiency.
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Furthermore, he notes that programmers will generally aim to achieve any explicit goals which may be set, probably at the expense of any other quality attributes. Sommerville has identified four generalised attributes which are not concerned with what a program does, but how well the program does it: • • • • Weinberg has identified four targets which a good program should meet: • Does a program meet its; 'correct output for each possible input'? • Is the program produced on schedule (and within budget)?
• How adaptable is the program to cope with changing requirements? • Is the program efficient enough for the environment in which it is used?
Has identified seventeen objectives related to software quality, including: • Clear definition of purpose. • Ruggedness (difficult to misuse, kind to errors). • Early availability (delivered on time when needed). • Reliability. • in the light of experience.
• Efficiency (fast enough for the purpose to which it is put). • Minimum cost to develop. • Conformity to any relevant.
• Clear, accurate, and precise. Prerequisites [ ] Before coding starts, it is important to ensure that all necessary prerequisites have been completed (or have at least progressed far enough to provide a solid foundation for coding). If the various prerequisites are not satisfied then the software is likely to be unsatisfactory, even if it is completed. From Meek & Heath: 'What happens before one gets to the coding stage is often of crucial importance to the success of the project.'
The prerequisites outlined below cover such matters as: • how is development structured? (life cycle) • what is the software meant to do? (requirements) • the overall structure of the software system (architecture) • more detailed design of individual components (design) • choice of programming language(s) For small simple projects involving only one person, it may be feasible to combine architecture with design and adopt a very simple life cycle. Life cycle [ ]. Main article: A software development methodology is a framework that is used to structure, plan, and control the life cycle of a software product.
Common methodologies include,,,,,, and. The waterfall model is a sequential development approach; in particular, it assumes that the requirements can be completely defined at the start of a project. However, McConnell quotes three studies which indicate that, on average, requirements change by around 25% during a project. The other methodologies mentioned above all attempt to reduce the impact of such requirement changes, often by some form of step-wise, incremental, or iterative approach. Different methodologies may be appropriate for different development environments.
Requirements [ ]. Main article: McConnell states: 'The first prerequisite you need to fulfill before beginning construction is a clear statement of the problem the system is supposed to solve.' Meek and Heath emphasise that a clear, complete, precise, and unambiguous written specification is the target to aim for. Note that it may not be possible to achieve this target, and the target is likely to change anyway (as mentioned in the previous section). Sommerville distinguishes between less detailed user requirements and more detailed system requirements.
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